Міжнародная канферэнцыя распрацоўнікаў і карыстальнікаў свабодных праграм

Автоматизация задач на серверах. Опыт поддержки однотипных *NIX серверов

Антон Линевич – Киев, Украина

LVEE 2007

Каждый системный инженер сталкивается с проблемой нехватки времени. Количество серверов становится все большим, а времени на их поддержку остается все меньше. Возникает вполне разумное желание автоматизировать часть работы по их обслуживанию, централизовать управление групп серверов. Реализовать это можно, используя написанные собственноручно решения и выделяя время на их поддержку, либо можно использовать готовые решения, имеющие нужную функциональность.

Свободное время хочется использовать по полной и как можно дальше от вычислительных центров. Именно в период отдыха зачастую приходят гениальные мысли и находятся ответы на долгожданные вопросы.

К сожалению, такое времяпровождение недоступно до тех пор, пока не будет обновлено программное обеспечение, не будет обеспечена исправная работа системы мониторинга и достоверность информации о состоянии систем и серверов. Обычно требуется также проверить, а не вышло ли долгожданное обновление ядра, которое, в случае его выхода, непременно нужно испробовать и внедрить на группу серверов, не забыв обновить изменившиеся файлы конфигурации и скопировать их на все сервера, где установлены соответствующие пакеты. Ну и конечно, в срочном порядке необходимо применить patch к текущей версии ОС на все сервера, дабы уберечься от грядущих сетевых атак.

Какое-то время автор делал все перечисленное “вручную”, открывая терминал на каждый из серверов и выполняя цепочку одних и тех же команд на всех серверах по очереди. Желание повторять действия пропало после нескольких раз, но появились другие:

  • освободить себя от рутинных задач, которые машина вполне может выполнять самостоятельно, а что не может – сделать .
  • по возможности централизовать выполнение задач для комфортного управления и быстрого обновления систем.

Начиналось все с такого shell-скрипта:

for hosts in "server1 server2 server3"
do ssh !http://www.codecogs.com/png.latex?\textstyle%20host%20do_something%0D%0A%20%20%20@done@%0D%0A%0D%0A%D0%9A%D0%B0%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%B5-%D1%82%D0%BE%20%D0%B2%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%BC%D1%8F%20%D1%8D%D1%82%D0%BE%20%D0%B2%D1%8B%D1%80%D1%83%D1%87%D0%B0%D0%BB%D0%BE,%20%D0%BD%D0%BE%20%D0%BD%D0%B5%D0%B4%D0%BE%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%BA%D0%B8%20%D0%B1%D1%8B%D0%BB%D0%B8%20%D0%B2%D0%B8%D0%B4%D0%BD%D1%8B%20%D1%81%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%B7%D1%83.%20%D0%9D%D0%B5%20%D1%83%D1%81%D1%82%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%B8%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BB%D0%BE%20%D1%81%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%B4%D1%83%D1%8E%D1%89%D0%B5%D0%B5:%0D%0A%0D%0A*%20%D0%BC%D0%B5%D0%B4%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%BD%D0%BE:%20%D0%BA%D0%B0%D0%B6%D0%B4%D1%8B%D0%B9%20%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%BE%D1%86%D0%B5%D1%81%D1%81%20%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%87%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B0%D0%B5%D1%82%20%D0%B2%D1%8B%D0%BF%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%BD%D1%8F%D1%82%D1%8C%D1%81%D1%8F%20%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%BA%D0%BE%20%D0%BF%D0%BE%20%D0%B7%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%B5%D1%80%D1%88%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B8%20%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%B4%D1%8B%D0%B4%D1%83%D1%89%D0%B5%D0%B3%D0%BE;%0D%0A*%20%D0%B2%D1%8B%D0%B2%D0%BE%D0%B4%20%D0%BD%D0%B5%D1%83%D0%B4%D0%BE%D0%B1%D0%B5%D0%BD%20%D0%B4%D0%BB%D1%8F%20%D0%B2%D1%8B%D1%87%D0%B8%D1%82%D1%8B%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%8F,%20%D0%BF%D0%BE%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%BA%D1%83%20%D0%BD%D0%B5%D1%82%20%D1%8F%D0%B2%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B3%D0%BE%20%D1%83%D0%BA%D0%B0%D0%B7%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%8F,%20%D0%BA%D0%B0%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%8F%20%D1%81%D1%82%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%BA%D0%B0%20%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B0%D0%B4%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%B6%D0%B8%D1%82%20%D0%B2%D1%8B%D0%B2%D0%BE%D0%B4%D1%83%20%D0%BA%D0%B0%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%B3%D0%BE%20%D1%81%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B2%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B0;%0D%0A*%20%D1%81%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%B6%D0%BD%D0%BE%D1%81%D1%82%D1%8C%20%D0%BE%D0%B1%D1%81%D0%BB%D1%83%D0%B6%D0%B8%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%8F%20%D0%B4%D0%BB%D1%8F%20%D0%B1%D0%BE%D0%BB%D1%8C%D1%88%D0%BE%D0%B3%D0%BE%20%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%B8%D1%87%D0%B5%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B2%D0%B0%20%D0%B3%D1%80%D1%83%D0%BF%D0%BF%20%D1%81%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B2%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B2%20%D0%B8%20%D0%B1%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%B5%20%D1%81%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%B6%D0%BD%D1%8B%D1%85%20%D0%B7%D0%B0%D0%B4%D0%B0%D1%87/%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%BC%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B4.%20%0D%0A%0D%0A%D0%92%20%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%87%D0%B5%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B2%D0%B5%20%D0%B1%D1%8B%D1%81%D1%82%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B3%D0%BE%20%D1%80%D0%B5%D1%88%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%8F%20%D0%BD%D0%B0%20%D1%81%D0%B2%D0%B5%D1%82%20%D0%BF%D0%BE%D1%8F%D0%B2%D0%B8%D0%BB%D1%81%D1%8F%20%D0%BD%D0%B5%D0%B1%D0%BE%D0%BB%D1%8C%D1%88%D0%BE%D0%B9%20%D1%81%D0%BA%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%BF%D1%82,%20%D0%BA%D0%BE%D1%82%D0%BE%D1%80%D1%8B%D0%B9%20%D0%BF%D0%BE%D0%B7%D0%B2%D0%BE%D0%BB%D1%8F%D0%BB%20%D0%B7%D0%B0%D0%BF%D1%83%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%82%D1%8C%20%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%BC%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B4%D1%8B%20%D0%BF%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BB%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%BD%D0%BE%20%D0%BD%D0%B0%20%D0%B3%D1%80%D1%83%D0%BF%D0%BF%D0%B5%20%D1%81%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B2%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B2.%20%D0%98%D0%BC%D1%8F%20%D0%B5%D0%BC%D1%83%20%D0%B1%D1%8B%D0%BB%D0%BE%20%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%B8%D1%81%D0%B2%D0%BE%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%BE%20%D0%BD%D0%B5%D0%B2%D0%B7%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%87%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B5,%20%D0%BD%D0%BE%20%D0%B2%D0%B5%D1%81%D1%8C%D0%BC%D0%B0%20%D0%BF%D0%BE%D0%BD%D1%8F%D1%82%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B5:%20%22farm_cmd%22:http://a.linevich.com/files/farm_cmd.%20%D0%9F%D0%BE%20%D0%BC%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B5%20%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%B3%D0%BE,%20%D0%BA%D0%B0%D0%BA%20%D1%81%D0%BA%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%BF%D1%82%20%D0%B8%D1%81%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%BD%D0%BE%20%D0%B2%D1%8B%D0%BF%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%BD%D1%8F%D0%BB%20%D1%81%D0%B2%D0%BE%D1%8E%20%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%B1%D0%BE%D1%82%D1%83,%20%D0%B2%20%D0%B3%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B5%20%D0%B5%D0%B3%D0%BE%20%D0%B0%D0%B2%D1%82%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%B0%20%D0%B2%D1%8B%D1%80%D0%B8%D1%81%D0%BE%D0%B2%D1%8B%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BB%D0%B8%D1%81%D1%8C%20%D0%BE%D0%B1%D1%89%D0%B8%D0%B5%20%D1%87%D0%B5%D1%80%D1%82%D1%8B%20%D1%81%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B5%D1%80%D1%88%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%BD%D0%BE%20%D0%BD%D0%B5%D0%BE%D0%B1%D1%85%D0%BE%D0%B4%D0%B8%D0%BC%D0%BE%D0%B3%D0%BE%20%D0%B7%D0%B0%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%BD%D1%87%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B3%D0%BE%20%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B3%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BC%D0%BC%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B3%D0%BE%20%D1%80%D0%B5%D1%88%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%8F.%20%D0%A2%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%B1%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%8F:%0D%0A%0D%0A*%20%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%BE%D1%81%D1%82%D1%8C%20%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%B1%D0%BE%D1%82%D1%8B:%20%D0%B6%D0%B5%D0%BB%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%B5%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%BD%D0%BE%20%D0%B2%D1%8B%D0%BF%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%82%D1%8C%20%D0%B2%D1%81%D0%B5%20%D0%B4%D0%BE%20%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%B3%D0%BE,%20%D0%BA%D0%B0%D0%BA%20%D0%B2%D1%8B%D0%B9%D0%B4%D0%B5%D1%82%20%D0%BE%D1%87%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%B4%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B9%20%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%B1%D0%B8%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%BD%D1%8B%D0%B9%20%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%BB%D0%B8%D0%B7%20%D1%8F%D0%B4%D1%80%D0%B0,%20%D0%B8%20%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%B8%20%D1%8D%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%BC%20%D1%83%D1%81%D0%BF%D0%B5%D1%82%D1%8C%20%D0%B2%D0%B5%D1%87%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%BC%20%D0%BD%D0%B0%20%D1%81%D0%B2%D0%B8%D0%B4%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B5;%0D%0A*%20%D0%BE%D1%82%D0%BA%D1%80%D1%8B%D1%82%D1%8B%D0%B9%20%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%B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bmw.kiev.ua \
sudo gtar czf – \
/etc \
/usr/local/etc | /opt/sbin/backup2svn bmw.kiev.ua
Изменился файл /etc/ccd.conf:
Index: etc/ccd.conf
===============
-
- etc/ccd.conf (revision 102)
+ etc/ccd.conf (working copy)
@ -4,7 +4,7 @
+ccd0 16 none /dev/sd2e /dev/sd3e
-ccd0 16 none /dev/wd0a


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